M. Oelk. Central Washington University.
Wash- would be larger than normal autoimmune thyroid disease ington generic prilosec 40 mg with mastercard, DC: American Psychiatric (E) Mental ability would be improved, 7. Mechanisms of slowed, and thyroid gland size would (A) Produces hydrogen peroxide as an thyroid hormone action. Biological activities of body growth rate would remain to form an iodothyronine residue thyroid hormone receptors. Eur J En- slowed, and thyroid gland size would (C) Occurs on the basal membrane of docrinol 1997;137:433–445. Uncoupling proteins (D) Catalyzes the release of thyroid hormone and other regulators of un- (A) Utilize the proton gradient across hormones into the circulation coupling proteins. Int J Obes Relat the mitochondrial membrane to (E) Couples MIT and DIT to Metab Disord 1999;23(Suppl facilitate ATP synthesis thyroglobulin 6):S56–S59. The adrenal gland is comprised of an outer cortex sur- ularis by increasing intracellular cAMP. Angiotensin II and angiotensin III stimulate aldosterone glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis. Hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex include glucocor- ing cytosolic calcium and activating protein kinase C. The glucocorticoids cortisol and corticosterone are synthe- tosol of target cells. The glucocorticoid-bound receptor sized in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis of the ad- translocates to the nucleus and then binds to glucocorti- renal cortex. The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is synthesized in the the transcription of specific genes. Cholesterol, used in the synthesis of the adrenal cortical to fasting, injury, and stress. Stored cholesterol is derived mainly from low-den- synthesized and secreted by the chromaffin cells of the ad- sity lipoprotein particles circulating in the blood, but it can renal medulla. Stimuli such as injury, anger, pain, cold, strenuous exer- renal steroids and occurs in all three zones of the cortex. The liver is the main site for the metabolism of adrenal gic preganglionic fibers innervating the chromaffin cells, steroids, which are conjugated to glucuronic acid and ex- resulting in the secretion of catecholamines.
Articulations © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy prilosec 20mg discount, Sixth Edition Companies, 2001 208 Unit 4 Support and Movement Dorsiflexion (b) Flexion Plantar flexion Extension (a) Abduction Adduction (c) FIGURE 8. Articulations © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Companies, 2001 Chapter 8 Articulations 209 (a) Rotation (b) Circumduction FIGURE 8. Rotation Special Movements Rotation is movement of a body part around its own axis (see Because the terms used to describe generalized movements figs. There is no lateral displacement during this around axes do not apply to movement at certain joints or areas movement. Examples are turning the head from side to side, as if of the body,other terms must be used. In anatomical position, the forearm is al- ankle and intertarsal joints. It is a rotational movement of the forearm so that the palm abnormalities. With respect to anatomical position, medial rotation of the The condition of the heels of your shoes can tell you whether you invert or evert your foot as you walk. If the heel is worn shoulder joint occurs when an upper limb is moved across the down on the outer side, you tend to invert your foot as you walk. Medial rotation of the hip joint occurs as one lower limb is Protraction is movement of part of the body forward, on a partially moved across the anterior surface of the other. Retraction, the opposite of protraction, is the pulling back of a protracted part of the body on a plane parallel Circumduction to the ground. Retraction of the mandible brings the lower jaw Circumduction is the circular movement of a body part so that a back in alignment with the upper jaw, so that the teeth occlude. The distal extremity performs the Elevation is movement that raises a body part. Examples circular movement and the proximal attachment serves as the include elevating the mandible to close the mouth and lifting pivot (fig. This type of motion is possible at the trunk, the shoulders to shrug (fig.
Men may experience erectile dys- dition is not recognized or diagnosed function and women may experience immediately because the symptoms have decrease in sexual desire prilosec 10 mg with visa, lubrication prob- 106 CHAPTER 3 CONDITIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: PART II lems, or inorgasmia (McCabe, McDonald, A variety of medications may be used to Deeks, Vowels, & Cobain, 1996). Some medica- ever, women with multiple sclerosis are tions may exacerbate symptoms or ad- able to become pregnant and carry preg- versely affect remaining function, and nancy to term. There is no evidence that some have the potential to impair mem- pregnancy causes an increase in symp- ory and learning. Consequently, the type toms or exacerbations of the condition of medication prescribed varies with the (Hansell, 1995). Medications are commonly Some individuals experience cognitive used for bladder management, control of changes as a result of multiple sclerosis, spasticity, or emotional symptoms. Some individuals, however, ple sclerosis never experience urinary may experience impairment in perform- problems, for those who do, anticholiner- ing tasks that require conceptualization, gic medications, which inhibit the actions memory, or new learning, as well as difﬁ- of the parasympathetic nervous system, culty with tasks that require either rapid are sometimes helpful in relieving bladder or precise motor responses. Depression is com- stimulate the actions of the parasympa- mon, although the degree to which it is a thetic nervous system, may be helpful in reaction to the disease or a manifestation relieving urinary retention. Bladder training may be helpful in reducing bladder problems Treatment and Management of and in helping the individual to manage Multiple Sclerosis bladder control. Use of a catheter or san- itary pads may also decrease the embar- The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is rassment of possible leakage of urine. There is no speciﬁc ids are ingested and ensuring a ready treatment for multiple sclerosis, nor is availability of restrooms to minimize the there a cure. If individuals have ed toward controlling individual symp- problems with urinary retention, they toms and preventing exacerbations and may be taught to insert a catheter into complications. Relaxants or antispasmod- toms, but it can have risks that must be ics may be prescribed for muscle spasm or carefully weighed by each individual. There is no steroids taken over extended periods of formula for estimating the general out- time, they are usually prescribed only on come for all individuals. Symptoms often a temporary basis to decrease exacerba- ﬂuctuate with periods of remission (when tions, and not as ongoing therapy. Al- or anxiety may have antianxiety agents or though the symptoms may partly resolve antidepressants prescribed. Since suicide when the disease is in remission, exacerba- rates are relatively high among individu- tions can leave permanent residual defects.