By F. Pyran. Minnesota State University Moorhead.
This volume expli- cates our current understanding of the current theory buy nolvadex 20 mg, research, and prac- tice on these complex psychological processes. We are proud of our list of contributors that includes some of the most influential and productive pain researchers in the world. Although the book is primarily intended for psychologists (practitioners, researchers, and students) managing, investigating, and studying pain, it would also be of interest to a variety of other professionals working in this area (e. The book is also suitable as a textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses on the psychology of pain. We owe a debt of gratitude to the many sources of support made avail- able to us. In the first instance, we are most appreciative of the commit- ment, inspiration, and hard work of the people who work with us in the xi xii PREFACE common cause of developing a better understanding of pain and pain con- trol. Our graduate students and project staff continuously offer fresh per- spectives, ideas, and boundless energy, giving us a great hope for the future and confidence in our work today. We also acknowledge many outstanding colleagues who generously exchange ideas with us about important issues relating to the psychology of pain. These ideas are a source of inspiration and make us proud of the many scientific and clinical advances our field has achieved. Work on this project was supported, in part, by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research Investigator Award to Thomas Hadjistavropoulos and by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research Senior Investigator Award to Ken- neth D. Related work in our laboratories has been supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, and the Health Services Utilization and Re- search Commission. We acknowledge Holly Luhning’s help in preparing and formatting the manuscript for submission to the publisher. We also thank Debra Riegert of Lawrence Erlbaum Associates for her support and enthusiasm about this project. Craig An Introduction to Pain: Psychological Perspectives Thomas Hadjistavropoulos University of Regina Kenneth D. Craig University of British Columbia Pain is primarily a psychological experience.
The Oucher comprises a series of six photographs of a 4-year-old White boy showing facial expressions indicating various levels of pain cheap 10mg nolvadex otc. A pediatric patient is asked to point to the picture that best reflects his or her own level of hurt. Using photographs of Hispanic and African Ameri- can children, taken when they were or were not experiencing pain, the au- thors established an ordering of six photographs that other children could agree represented a progression of pain expression. It remains to be established whether this particular measure will reveal any cross- cultural differences in children’s pain levels, whether scales tailored to ethnic origin or race, although culturally sensitive, aid in either pain as- sessment or in strengthening communication between medical practition- ers and children of different cultural groups, and whether culture-free measures (such as a series of face drawings; Chambers & Craig, 1998; Chambers, Giesbrecht, Craig, Bennett, & Huntsman, 1999) can achieve both validity and universality in pain assessment. Abu-Saad (1984) interviewed Arab American, Asian American, and Latin American school children, asking what caused pain for them, what words they used to describe pain (“like a hurt” was the most common descriptor in each group), how they felt when they are in pain, and how they coped with pain. Given that all lived in the same urban environment, the finding that the similarities among the subjects are considerably greater than the differences is not surprising. Studies of this sort need to be conducted with large numbers of children, of varying age and in a range of countries, in or- der to help us to better understand at what age cross-cultural differences, if any, become apparent and what changes take place during infancy, child- hood, and adolescence. They will also advance our understanding of the speed of cultural diffusion or adaptation. Pfefferbaum, Adams, and Aceves (1990) studied pain and anxiety in 37 Hispanic and 35 Anglo children with 166 ROLLMAN cancer at a hospital in Texas. It was the parents who differed, with the Hispanic parents reporting significantly higher levels of anxiety than the Anglo ones. Canadian-born Chinese and non-Chinese infants, receiving routine immu- nization at the age of 2 months, were compared for facial expressions and pain cries (Rosmus, Johnston, Chan-Yip, & Yang, 2000). This study is inter- esting because it provides an early examination of possible cultural differ- ences in socialization. The authors, noting a literature on cross-cultural dif- ferences in infant development and the role of infant-care practices, assessed demographic information, degree of acculturation, the infant’s feeding and crying patterns, and video recordings focused on the face dur- ing immunization.
The distance between the axis and the point of appli- cation of force is known as the force arm; the distance between the axis and the point of application of resist- ance is known as the resistance arm buy nolvadex 20 mg on-line. Lifestream trains the therapist to work effi- ciently to prevent injury and burnout. A group of brain structures that include amygdala, hip- pocampus, denate gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and their interconnections with hypothalamus, septal areas, and brainstem. Persons with an inter- nal locus of control believe they can influence the out- come of events. Those with an external locus of control, conversely, believe that the outcome of events is largely a matter of fate or chance (ie, that they cannot have influence over the outcome of events). Two-handed, forearm, and elbow application of strokes that cover a broad area is charac- teristic of lomi lomi. Lonsdale method of lymphatic massage: A unique inte- gration of osteopathic visceral manipulation, stroking, and both superficial and deep lymphatic drainage. Looyen work: A painless approach to deep-tissue thera- py, working with the connective tissue and facial com- ponents. It is a combination of several restructuring systems, including Rolfing, postural integration, and Aston-patterning. It is also concerned with corpus luteum formation and, in the male, stimulates the development and functional activity of interstitial cells. M M technique: A series of stroking movements per- formed in a set sequence. Cost con- tainment approach that enables the payer to influence the delivery of health services prospectively (ie, before services are provided). Manipulation is a sudden small thrust that is not under the patient’s/client’s control, while mobilization is a passive movement technique where the patient/client can control the movement. MariEL: A transformational healing energy that works at the cellular level to help clients discover and release emotional and physical traumas.