By W. Kadok. Emmanuel College.

EBV is spread by contact with viral-infected saliva through coughing buy vantin 100mg with amex,, kissing, or the sharing of • loss of appetite items such as drinking glasses, eating utensils, straws, • stomach pain and/or nausea toothbrushes, or lip gloss. Some evidence indicates that in teens and young adults IM is primarily transmitted by sex- • muscle soreness and/or joint pain ual intercourse. However EBV is not highly contagious • headache and household members have only a very small risk of in- • chest pain fection unless there is direct contact with infected saliva. Acupressure ORGANIZATIONS Acupuncture Antiemetic Barberry Neurological system Movement therapy Optokinetic Definition Vertigo Vestibular system Origins 1378 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 KEY TERMS. Dietary sources of Russian lab, and was investigated for its usefulness as a the three sulfur-containing amino acids—methionine, cys- solvent (a dissolver of other substances). Through the ages, its cura- delivery of other medications through the skin into the tive uses have motivated many pilgrimmages to hot body, and that it had significant pain relieving and anti- springs and sulfur baths around the world. One of the most safely and less expensively than drugs used for the widely reported benefits is the relief of pain, inflamma- same conditions in the United States. It is report- DMSO turns into MSM in the body, and that the MSM ed to improve mucus membranes, thereby reducing food metabolite produced the pain-relieving and anti-inflam- and airborne allergic reactions, and symptoms related to matory benefits without the unpleasant odor side effect. Jacob and Herschler, and others ease; and improve athletic performance by reducing lac- by anecdote, have found MSM to be clinically helpful tic acid effects, strengthening muscle elasticity and sup- in treating many more conditions, and that it is ex- pleness, and enhancing recovery times. One source specifies the pres- effect on the bowels, which increases peristalsis (waves ence of MSM—in descending order—in unpasteurized of motion that move food along the digestive tract). Some reports say that natural levels of MSM colons, and those addicted to laxatives. However, other sources refute the need for supplementing in the form of MSM, claiming that dietary sources of sulfur MSM is commonly available in these forms: pow- are sufficient. People who would like to try mullein as an alternative remedy for sore throats might want to use the herb by itself first before trying herbal mixtures. There have been isolated case reports of people de- veloping (allergic skin rash) from mullein plants. Persons taking prescrip- tion diuretics should consult a physician before taking mullein, as it may interact with the prescription drugs to cause a loss of from the body.

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Man- ganese may also have some anticancer activity as well as Cytokines—Chemicals made by T cells that act on a number of other important functions vantin 200mg without a prescription. One recent study of dietary supple- mentation with manganese and other micronutrients in Paula Ford-Martin Mexican infants found that children who received the supplements grew faster and taller than a control group Malignant melanoma see Skin cancer given a placebo. The authors concluded that growth re- tardation in children in developing countries is linked to Mandarin orange peel see Tangerine peel manganese and other micronutrient deficiencies in the diet, among other factors. General use Manganese While considered necessary for general good health, manganese is also used for specific health concerns. Be- Description cause of its role in maintaining strong bones, the mineral Not to be confused with magnesium, manganese is in combination with other trace minerals has been sug- a trace mineral used by some people to help prevent gested as a possible treatment for osteoporosis. Man- bone loss and alleviate the bothersome symptoms associ- ganese may also help to ease symptoms associated with ated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). They usually act as coenzymes, examined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial pub- working as a team with proteins to facilitate important lished in the Journal of Nutrition in 1994, which studied chemical reactions. Even without taking manganese sup- the effects of minerals on preventing bone loss in 59 post- plements, people with an average diet consume some- menopausal women in good health. The women were di- where between 2 and 3 mg of the mineral through food vided into several groups. While most authorities agree that manganese bos, while others received calcium alone, trace minerals, is a vital micronutrient, it is not known for certain if tak- or a combination of calcium and trace minerals. The trace ing extra amounts can be helpful in treating osteoporo- minerals included manganese (5 mg a day), zinc (15 mg a sis, menstrual symptoms, or other problems. The study, which was Manganese, which is concentrated mainly in the conducted over a period of two years, found that calcium liver, skeleton, pancreas, and brain, is considered impor- plus trace minerals was most effective in preventing bone tant because it is used to make several key enzymes in loss in the spine. This study shows the importance of taking calcium 1286 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 with these trace minerals in order to keep bones strong. Adequate intake for younger children varies with Since manganese was studied in combination with other age.

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The authors consider a hundred-point scoring system generic 200 mg vantin visa, combined with the ability to assess individual parameters with numerical values, to be the best method of functional assessment of the shoulder. The first subjective pa- rameter assesses the most severe degree of pain experienced during ac- tivities of normal daily living (Table 10). The other subjective parameter assessed is the ability of the individu- al to carry out daily activities in relation to work, recreation, and ability to sleep (Table 11). The ability of the patient to perform everyday activ- ities in terms of the position of the arm in relation to the trunk is also evaluated. Twenty points may be allocated for activities of daily living, as shown in Table 11. Scoring for individual parameters Parameter Score Pain 15 Activities of daily living 20 Range of motion 40 Power 25 Total 100 200 19 Scores Table 10. Scoring for pain experienced during normal daily activity Pain experienced Score None 15 Mild 10 Moderate 5 Severe 0 Table 11. Scoring for activities of daily living Activity Score Activity level Full work 4 Full recreation/sport 4 Unaffected sleep 2 Positioning Up to waist 2 Up to xiphoid 4 Up to neck 6 Up to top of head 8 Above head 10 Total 20a a Only one of the five positions is found in each patient. The maximum points attain- able by a normal individual in this section can only be 20 activities outside work and two to unaffected sleep. The patient is asked to say what percentage of work and recreation has to be abolished as a result of the shoulder problems. One must be sure that sleep disturbance is caused by the shoulder and not by other problems, before reducing the allocated points. The other 10 points allocated to activities of daily living are given for the ability to perform tasks at a variety of levels, ranging from below waist to above head level. This is not the assessment of pure motion; it is the assessment of the ability of the hand to work at the levels de- scribed. Since the shoulder at rest will allow below-waist activities to be undertaken without much shoulder function, such activ- ities get only 2 points. Increasing point for activities above the level are allocated as shown in Table 11.

A female vantin 200mg mastercard, on the other hand, can the auditory canal or some other dysfunction of the be either homozygous or heterozygous for an X-linked eardrum or one of the three small bones within the ear trait. That is, she can either have two identical copies of (the stapes, the malleus, and the incus) that are responsi- this trait (homozygous) or only one copy is this trait (het- ble for collecting sound. In individuals affected with Type I OPD syndrome is transmitted through a dom- OPD syndrome, complete deafness from birth is often inant trait. In those individuals with partial hearing, parent has a 50% chance of also being affected with type speech disabilities related to this hearing loss are quite I OPD syndrome. Symptoms that are characteristic of type I OPD syn- drome include: curvature of the spine (scoliosis); gener- alized bone malformation, particularly in the bones of the limbs and ribcage; broad distal digits, malformed or missing teeth (hypodontia); and, mild mental retardation. Symptoms that are characteristic of type II OPD syn- drome include: low-set ears, flattened vertebrae in the spine, bowing of the bones of the limbs, flexed overlap- ping digits, a malformation or complete absence of the Cleft palate results in an opening of the roof of the mouth. In cases of mild mental retardation or speech prob- Diagnosis lems, early intervention programs for these types of A diagnosis of OPD syndrome is suggested when a developmental delays may also be of benefit. This diagnosis is confirmed by the observance of Most individuals affected with type I OPD syndrome brachdactyly and congenital dislocation of the elbows can expect to lead full lives if medical treatments, includ- and/or knees. Many individuals Type I OPD syndrome is differentially diagnosed affected with type II OPD syndrome die either prior to from type II OPD syndrome by the appearance of scolio- birth or as infants due to respiratory failure associated sis. Type II OPD syndrome is differentially diagnosed with the malformation of the bones of the ribcage. If from type I OPD by the presence of an omphalocele and these individuals survive infancy, they also may expect to greater malformations of the bones of the ribcage. Treatment and management There are currently no treatments aimed specifically Resources at OPD syndrome. PO Box 11082, surgery or can be alleviated through the use of braces Chattanooga, TN 37401. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS 865 National Foundation for Facial Reconstruction. The vast majority of people with ovarian “Entry 311300: Otopalatodigital syndrome.

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Emmanuel College.