By E. Arokkh. University of North Texas.
The reasons for the separate cerebral lobes order cipro 250mg on-line, as ble for the higher mental functions, including memory and rea- well as two cerebral hemispheres, have to do with specificity of son. The cerebrum consists of the right and left hemispheres, function (table 11. A portion of the meninges The frontal lobe forms the anterior portion of each cerebral called the falx (falks) cerebri extends into the longitudinal fis- hemisphere (fig. Each cerebral hemisphere contains a central cavity, the lat- central sulcus (fissure of Rolando) separates the frontal lobe eral ventricle (fig. The central sulcus extends at right angles and filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The lateral sulcus (fissure of Sylvius) extends laterally from the inferior sur- The two cerebral hemispheres carry out different functions. The frontal lobe’s functions include initiating voluntary the two hemispheres and permits a sharing of learning and memory. The frontal lobes also mediate responses related to mem- proven successful, it results in the cerebral hemispheres functioning ory, emotions, reasoning, judgment, planning, and verbal as separate structures, each with its own information, competing for communication. A more recent and effective technique of controlling epileptic seizures is a precise laser treatment of the corpus callosum. The surface layer, re- Parietal Lobe ferred to as the cerebral cortex, is composed of gray matter that The parietal lobe lies posterior to the central sulcus of the frontal is 2–4 mm (0. An important sensory area called the postcentral gyrus bral cortex is the thick white matter of the cerebrum, which (see figs. The postcentral gyrus is designated as a somates- by numerous folds and grooves called convolutions. Convolu- thetic area because it responds to stimuli from cutaneous and tions form during early fetal development, when brain size in- muscular receptors throughout the body. Nervous Tissue and the © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Coordination Central Nervous System Companies, 2001 Chapter 11 Nervous Tissue and the Central Nervous System 365 Longitudinal cerebral fissure Cerebral cortex (gray matter) Corpus callosum Cerebral medulla Caudate nucleus (white matter) Lateral ventricle Claustrum Basal nuclei Insula Putamen Lentiform nucleus Globus Third pallidus ventricle (a) (a) (b) Anterior horn of lateral ventricle Head of caudate nucleus Claustrum Insula Basal nuclei Putamen Lentiform Globus nucleus pallidus Thalamus Tail of caudate nucleus Vascular network in inferior horn of lateral ventricle Cerebral cortex (b) FIGURE 11. Nervous Tissue and the © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Coordination Central Nervous System Companies, 2001 366 Unit 5 Integration and Coordination Parietal lobe Frontal lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe FIGURE 11. It is separated from both by the body being served, but rather to the number of motor units lateral sulcus (see fig.
This requires a witness to think about the best and most honest way to respond to these questions cheap cipro 1000 mg amex. As for adversarial witnesses, pretrial discovery will reveal who they are and what they are likely to say and not say. Knowing this information will enable you and your attorney to fashion questions that show whether a witness is credible or, if credible, why mistaken about some key fact. Who qualifies as an “expert” is defined by the law of the jurisdiction where the case is litigated. California, for example, which is typical of many jurisdictions, defines an expert as one who has “spe- cial knowledge, skill, experience, training or education” about the subject to which the testimony will relate. Federal law, for instance, makes judges the “gate-keepers” for ensuring that scientific evidence is admitted only if it is both relevant and reliable. In determining this, a court can consider whether the expert used the scientific method, whether the theory or technique relied upon has been subjected to peer review and publication, whether a particular scientific technique has a significant rate of error, and whether the methodology used is generally accepted in the relevant scientific community. Usually your attorney will want to retain a prospective expert in a given field as a “consultant” to the attorney; that way it will not be necessary to disclose your “expert’s” identity and opinion on a matter should you decide not to use him or her as an “expert. If you or your adversary decide to go ahead with certain experts at trial, however, their identities must be disclosed by a certain time in the litigation framework to give each of you an opportunity to question the expert on his or her opinion before trial. Although it used to be that the standard of care pertinent to medical negligence was a local one, the standard of care for sometime now has been a national one, which opens the door for both sides obtaining the “best” experts in the country. Moreover, because medicine is a dynamic and fast-changing profession, what was good medical practice yester- 25 Cal. Chapter 2 / Litigation 29 day may no longer be the case now; and an “expert” must be up on current medical advances and standards of care. The personal injury bar used to complain of a “conspiracy of silence,” a tacit agreement amongst or common reluctance by doctors not to testify against their colleagues in medical negligence cases. Whatever truth there may have been to this accusation, a quick glance of the copious advertisements for “forensic medical experts” in the pages of magazines published by and for the personal injury bar shows that this is no longer true.