By R. Candela. William Howard Taft University.

Tibia vara is a disorder of unknown etiology buy alendronate 70mg mastercard, presenting in both infantile/ juvenile and adolescent forms (Pearl 4. In the infantile/ juvenile form it occurs bilaterally in over half of the cases, and most commonly presents with radiographic findings in the toddler age group. Historically, children with Blount’s disease generally walk at a much earlier age than their normal counterparts (average nine to ten months walking age). It is far more common in African Americans, probably secondary to early age at walking, and the majority of children are overweight. In addition to clinical varus deformity, internal tibial torsion is always a component. The From toddler to adolescence 68 diagnosis is established by the characteristic radiographic changes. Adolescent Blount’s disease is less common than infantile, is usually unilateral and has a more benign prognosis for ultimate knee formation. Treatment consists of bracing occasionally, and most often surgical correction. Nutritional rickets or Vitamin D rickets present with the characteristic radiographic features of rickets. The diagnosis of either type is generally established in the very early toddler period and in early childhood. Nutritional rickets is currently rarely seen except in children whose diets are specifically deficient in external calcium intake or with sunlight deprivation. Vitamin D rickets is a heredity disorder (autosomal dominant), and the radiographic alterations are striking and far more severe than in nutritional rickets. In both conditions the growth plate changes are most clearly reflected in major weight bearing joints, and consist of an increase in vertical thickness of the physis, and “fraying” and “cupping” of the metaphysis.

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Your examiners may be the only people who ever read your thesis in its entirety generic 35mg alendronate mastercard, and they have a major influence on whether you receive your degree. Most writers have access to a computer with word processing software that can speed up the process of writing considerably. However, without proper document planning, the facility to “cut and paste” can often lead to unnecessary and unproductive shuffling of text. This makes the writing process more purposeful and circumvents the frustration of having to live through just one or two drafts too many. Some writers still prefer to write by hand, especially in the planning stages of a paper. If you prefer this, then document planning is especially important for you. Headers and footers can be used to label your paper, number the pages and date the draft on which you are working. Your software can also be used to create standard formats for the major headings, subheadings, and minor headings throughout the document. Your page facility will enable you to set your margins so that they are correct for the journal, and tools such as spell check and word count are invaluable. The efficient use of these tools is both professional and efficient in terms of time management. Before your fingers even think about approaching the keyboard or picking up a pen, you should have conferred with your authorship team about the specific questions that you will answer in your paper. In an ideal world, you would also have decided to which journal you are going to submit your work and you will have obtained their “Instructions to authors”. First, you will need to start the document by inserting the headings and subheadings that you will be using. By forming a framework into which to assemble your aims, your methods, your findings, and your thoughts, you will find that all of your material falls into the correct places.

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Murray PM order 70 mg alendronate with mastercard, Weinstein SL, Spratt KF (1993) The natural history and The musculoskeletal system consists of tissues with wide- long-term follow-up of Scheuermann kyphosis. Murray RO, Duncan C (1971) Athletic activity in adolescence as an occur at the weakest point. The mechanical properties of etiological factor in degenerative hip disease J Bone Joint Surg 2 the various structures change during growth. The critical structure in small children under 10 dylolysis in the female athlete. Clin Orthop 372: years of age is bone tissue, while this role is as- 74–84 sumed by growth cartilage in adolescents. Pouliquen JC, Kassis B, Glorion C, Langlais J (1997) Vertebral adults, the ligaments can ultimately be described growth after thoracic or lumbar fracture of the spine in children. J as the weakest point in the tissue system of the Pediatr Orthop 17: 115–20 14. Segesser B, Morscher E (1978) Die Coxarthrose bei ehemaligen musculoskeletal apparatus. Segesser B, Morscher E, Goesele A (1995) Störungen der Wachs- the lowest loading tolerance. Stokes I, Mente P, Iatridis J, Farnum C, Aronsson D (2002) Enlarge- So what advice should we give to young athletes? When ment of growth plate chondrocytes modulated by sustained should they start performance training? J Bone Joint Surg Am 84-A: 1842–8 cents wait until growth is completed and run the risk of 17. Tanchev P, Dzherov A, Parushev A, Dikov D, Todorov M (2000) no longer being competitive? Spine 25: 1367–72 questions we need to know more about the long-term ef- 18. Williamson A, Chen A, Masuda K, Thonar E, Sah R (2003) Tensile mechanical properties of bovine articular cartilage: variations fects of the aforementioned illnesses.

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